We use antenatal testing to determine the ABO and D group of the mother and to check for atypical red cell antibodies.
Tests are required at booking and at 28 weeks.
Routine tests aren't needed at other times unless a transfusion is required or an antibody needs further investigation.
Group and screen
- Group and screen is used to determine the ABO and Rh type.
- RhD negative women will need anti-D prophylaxis unless they are already sensitised to the D-antigen.
- Used when the antibody screen is positive to identify if the antibody (or antibodies) could cause hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN).
Antibody titration or quantitation
- Anti-D and anti-C are quantified, all other antibodies are titrated.
Maternal test for fetomaternal haemorrhage
- Kleihauer (acid elution) or flow cytometry
Cord blood group
- For anti‐D immunoglobulin prophylaxis in RhD negative women.
- For red cell antigen testing and direct antiglobulin test (DAT) in women with red cell antibodies.
Find out more about: Scottish National Guidance: Pregnant women with red cell
DNA genotyping of fetus
- For women who have an antibody which may cause serious haemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn and the father is predicted to be heterozygote or unknown.
- NHS Blood and Transplant: IBGRL offer non-invasive fetal genotyping for mothers with red cell antibodies.